Publications & Patents



  1. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown and WE Lee, “Thermal Properties of La2O3-doped ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [15-16] 3467-3472, 2013.
  2. J Ye, RP Thackray, S Zhang and WE Lee, “Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Titanium Carbide Coated Carbon Black Particles Synthesized from Molten Salt”, J. Mater. Sci., 48 [18] 6269-75, 2013.
  3. A Paul, S Venugopal, JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, ACJ Heaton and PM Brown, “UHTC–carbon fibre composites: Preparation, Oxyacetylene Torch Testing and Characterisation”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [2] 423-432 (2013).
  4. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan and D Jaglin, “Microwave Heated Chemical Vapour Infiltration of SiC Powder Impregnated SiC Fibre Preforms”, Adv. Appl. Ceram., 112 [4] 235-241, 2013.
  5. A Paul, JGP Binner, ACJ Heaton, B Vaidhyanathan, and PM Brown, “Oxyacetylene Torch Testing and Microstructural Characterisation of Tantalum Carbide”, Journal of Microscopy, 250 [2] 122-129, 2013.
  6. B Cui, E Zapata-Solvas, MJ Reece, C Wang and WE Lee, “Microstructure and High-Temperature Oxidation Behaviour of Ti3AlC2/W Composites”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [2] 584-591, 2013.
  7. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, P Brown and WE Lee, “Mechanical Properties of ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33 1373-1386, 2013.
  8. S Grasso, J Poetschke, V Richter, G Maizza, Y Sakka and MJ Reece, “Low-Temperature Spark Plasma Sintering of Pure Nano WC Powder”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [6] 1702-1705, 2013.
  9. S Grasso, H Yoshida, H Porwal, Y Sakka and MJ Reece, “Highly Transparent α-Alumina Obtained By Low Cost High Pressure SPS”, Ceramics International, 39 [3] 3243-3248, 2013.
  10. D Manara, HF Jackson, C Perinetti-Casoni, K Boboridis, MJ Welland, L Luzzi and WE Lee, “The ZrC-C Eutectic Structure and Melting Behaviour: A High-temperature Radiance Spectroscopy Study”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33 1349-61, 2013.
  11. WE Lee, MI Ojovan and CM Jantzen (Editors), “Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-up: Processes, Technologies and International Experience”, (Woodhead, 2013).
  12. B Cui and WE Lee, “High-temperature Oxidation Behaviour of MAX-Phase Ceramics”, Refractories World forum, WINNER of 3rd place in Gustav Eirich Award 2012, 5 [1] 105-112, 2013.
  13. WE Lee, M Gilbert, S Murphy and RW Grimes, “Opportunities for Advanced Ceramics and Composites in the Nuclear Sector”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [7] 2005-30, 2013.
  14. S Grasso, Y Sakka, “Electric field in SPS: Geometry and Pulsed Current Effects”, J. Ceram. Soc., Japan, 1414 [121] 524-526, 2013.
  15. J Ye, S Zhang and WE Lee, “Molten Salt Synthesis and Characterization of SiC Coated Carbon Black Particles for Refractory Castables Applications”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [29] 2023-29, 2013.
  16. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, D Jaglin and S Needham, “Use of Electrophoretic Impregnation And Vacuum Bagging to Impregnate Sic Powder into Sic Fibre Preforms”, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Techn., 1-11 DOI:10.1111/ijac.12143 (2013).


  1. S Venugopal, A Paul, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner, A Heaton, PM Brown, “Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering of Sub-micron HfB2: Effect of Various Carbon Sources”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 34 [6] 1471–1479, 2014.
  2. WE Lee, R Harrison, E Giorgi, A Maitre and O Rapaud, WG Fahrenholtz, EJ Wuchina, “Nuclear Applications for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and MAX Phases, in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Application”, Lee WE and Zhou Y (Eds.), Wiley, (2014).
  3. WG Fahrenholtz, EJ Wuchina, WE Lee and Y Zhou (Editors), “Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Applications”, Wiley, (2014).
  4. C Carney, A Paul, A Venugopal, T Parthasarathy, JGP Binner, A Katz and P Brown, “Qualitative Analysis of Hafnium Diboride Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Oxyacetylene Torch Testing at Temperatures above 2100oC”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 34 [5] 1045–1051, 2014.
  5. Q Wang, C Hu, S Cai, Y Sakka, S Grasso and Q Huang, “Synthesis of High-Purity Ti3SiC2 by Microwave Sintering”, Int. J. App. Ceram. Tech.,11 [5] 911-918, 2014.
  6. A Paul, JGP Binner and B Vaidhyanathan, “UHTC Composites for Hypersonic Applications”, Chapter 7, in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Applications, First Edition. Edited by William G. Fahrenholtz, Eric J. Wuchina, William E. Lee and Yanchun Zhou. The American Ceramic Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 144-166, 2014.
  7. JD Rogal, MW Finnis, A Glensk, J Neugebauer, JH Perepezko, S Schuwalow, MHF Sluiter, B Sundman, “Perspectives on Point Defect Thermodynamics”, Physica Status Solidi B, [251] 97-129, 2014.
  8. S Grasso, T Saunders, H Porwal, O Cedillos-Barraza, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee and MJ Reece, “Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) of Pure ZrB2 Powder“, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97 [8] 2405-2408, 2014.
  9. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown and WE Lee, “Effect of La2O3 Addition on Long-term Oxidation Kinetics of ZrB2-SiC and HfB2-SiC Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 34 [5] 3535-3548, 2014.
  10. P Badica, S Grasso, H Borodianska Sky, S Xie, P Li, P Tatarko, MJ Reece, Y Sakka and O Vasylkiv, “Tough and Dense Boron Carbide Obtained By High-Pressure (300 MPa) and Low-Temperature (1600°C) Spark Plasma Sintering”, J. Ceram.Soc., of Japan, 122 271-275, 2014.
  11. S Venugopal, EE Boakye, A Paul, K Keller, P Mogilevsky, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner, A Katz and PM Brown, “Sol Gel Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Ultra High Temperature Ceramic: HfB2”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97 [1] 92–99, 2014.
  12. MI Ojovan and WE Lee, (2nd Edition, Elsevier) “An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation“, 362 (2014).
  13. H Zhang, C Hu, J Lv, S Grasso, M Mishra, M Estili, Y Yamauchi, B Kim, Y Sakka, “Microstructure and Adsorption Property of Nano Carbide-derived Carbon (CDC) Synthesized at Ambient Temperature”, Materials Letters, 130 188-191, 2014.
  14. S Grasso, T Saunders, H Porwal and MJ Reece, “Ultra-High Temperature Spark Plasma Sintering of α-SiC”, Ceramics International, 41 [1] 225-230, 2014.
  15. R Harrison, O Ridd, DD Jayaseelan and WE Lee, “Thermophysical Characterisation Of ZrCxNy Ceramics Fabricated Via Carbothermal Reduction-Nitridation”, J. Nuclear Mats.,454,46-53 , 2014.
  16. J Gonzalez-Julian, O Cedillos, S Doring, S Nolte, O Guillon and WE Lee, “Enhanced Oxidation Resistance of ZrB2/SiC Composites Through In Situ Reaction of Gadolinium Oxide in Patterned Surface Cavities”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 34,4157-4166, 2014.
  17. R Harrison, O Ridd, DD Jayaseelan and WE Lee, “Synthesis and Characterisation of ZrCxNy Ceramics via Carbothermic Reduction-Nitridation”, J. Nuclear Mats.


  1. T Saunders, S Grasso,  MJ Reece, “Plasma Formation during Electric Discharge (50V) through Conductive Powder Compacts”, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [3] 871–877, , 2015.
  2. DD Jayaseelan, E Zapata-Solvas, CM Carney, A Katz, P Brown, WE Lee, “Microstructural Evolution of HfB2–based Ceramics during Oxidation at 1600oC to 2000oC”, Adv. in Applied Ceramics. 114 [5] 277-295, 2015.
  3. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, D Jaglin, S Needham, “Use of Electrophoretic Impregnation And Vacuum Bagging To Impregnate Sic Powder Into Sic Fibre Preforms”, S. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 12 [1] 212–222, 2015.
  4. S Venugopal, DD Jayaseelan, A Paul, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner,PM Brown,”Screw Dislocation Assisted Spontaneous Growth of HfB2 Tubes and Rods”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98 [7] 2060-2064, 2015.
  5. DD Jayaseelan, X Yanda, L Vandeperre, P Brown, WE Lee, “Development of Multi-Layered Thermal Protection System (TPS) For Aerospace Applications”, Composite, Part B, [79] 392-405, 2015.
  6. N Patra, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee, “Synthesis of Biopolymer-Derived Zirconium Carbide Powder By Facile One-Pot Reaction”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98 [1] 71-77, 2015.
  7. HB Zhang, CF Hu, SK Sato, S Grasso, M Estili, SQ Guo, K Morita, H Yoshida, T Nishimura, TS Suzuki, MW Barsoum, BN Kim, Y Sakka, “Tailoring Ti3AlC2 Ceramic With High Anisotropic Physical And Mechanical Properties”, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [1] 393-397, 2015.
  8. CF Hu, BN Kim, YJ Park, M Estili, S Grasso, K Morita, H Yoshida, T Nishimura, SQ Guo, Y Sakka, “Nano ZrO2-Tin Composites With High Strength And Conductivity”, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 123 [1434] 86-89, 2015.
  9. MK Mani, G Viola, JP Hall, S Grasso, MJ Reece, “Observation of Curie Transition During Spark Plasma Sintering of Ferromagnetic Materials”, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 382 202-205, 2015.
  10. AI Duff, T. Davey, D Korbmacher, A Glensk, B Grabowski, J Neugebauer, MW Finnis, “Improved Method Of Calculating ab initio High-Temperature Thermodynamic Properties With Application to ZrC”, Phys. Rev. B, [91] 214311-1-8, 2015.
  11. A. Duff,  M. Finnis, P.Maugis, B. Thijsse, M. H. F Sluiter, “MEAMfit: A Reference-Free Modified Embedded Atom Method (RF-MEAM) Energy and Force-Fitting Code.” Phys. Commun., 196, 439-445, 2015.
  12. DD Jayaseelan, E Zapata-Solvas, R Chater, WE Lee, “Structural and Compositional Analyses of Oxidized Layers of ZrB2-based ceramics”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [15] 4059–4071, 2015.
  13. D Horlait, S Grasso, N Al Nasiri, PA Burr, WE Lee, “Synthesis and Oxidation Testing of MAX Phases in the Cr-Ti-Al-C Quaternary System”,  J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 99 (2), 682-690, 2015.
  14. R Harrison, WE Lee, “Mechanism and Kinetics of Oxidation of ZrN Ceramics”,  J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98, (7), 2205-2213, 2015.
  15. T Saunders, S Grasso, MJ Reece, “Limiting oxidation of ZrB2 by application of an electric field across its oxide scale”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 653, 629-635, 2015.
  16. Stadelmann, B. Hughes, N. Orlovskaya, S. Grasso, M. J. Reece, “2D Raman Mapping and Thermal Tesidual Stresses in SiC Grains of ZrB2–SiC Ceramic Composites”, Ceramics International, 41, 13630-13637, 2015.
  17. T. Saunders, S. Grasso, M.J.Reece. “Plasma Formation during Electric Discharge (50V) through Conductive Powder Compacts“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35, 817-877, (2015).
  18. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown, WE Lee, “Effect of Oxidation on Room Temperature Strength of ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, Adv. in Applied Ceramics, 114, (8), 407- 417, 2015.


  1. D.Horlait, S.Grasso, A.Chroneos, W.E. Lee. “Attempts to Synthesize Quaternary MAX Phases (Zr,M)2AlC and Zr2(Al,A)C as a Way to Approach Zr2AlC“.  Mat. Res. Letters, 4, (3), 137-144, 2016.
  2. T Csanádi, S Grasso, A Kovalčíková, J Dusza, M Reece, “Nanohardness and Elastic Anisotropy of ZrB2 Crystals“, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 36, 239-242, 2016.
  3. T Csanádi,*, P Szommer, NQ Chinh, S Grasso, J Dusza, Mike Reece, “Plasticity in ZrB2 Micropillars Induced by Anomalous Slip Activation“, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc. , 36, 389-394, 2016.
  4. S Grasso, T Saunders, B Milsom, H Porwal, MJ Reece, “Flash Spark Plasma sintering of α and β Silicon Carbide”, J.Am. Ceram. Soc.,99 (5), 1534-1543, 2016.
  5. D Horlait, SC Middleburgh, A Chroneos, WE Lee, “Synthesis and DFT Investigation of New Bismuth-Containing MAX Phases”, Scientific Reports, 6:18829, 2016.
  6. N Patra, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee, “Synthesis of ZrB2/SiC Composite Powders by a Single-Step Solution Process from an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Precursor”, Adv. Applied Ceramics, 115, (1), 36-42,2016.
  7. O.Cedillos-Barraza, S.Grasso, N. Al Nasiri, D.D. Jayaseelan, M.J.Reece, W.E.Lee. “Sintering Behaviour, Solid Solution Formation and Characterisation of TaC, HfC and TaC–HfC Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 36,1539-1548, 2016.
  8. S. Ghanizadeh, P.Ramanujam, B.Vaidhayanathan, J.Binner. “Spray Freeze Granulation of Submicrometre α-alumina Using Ultrasonication“. J.Ceram.Sci.Tech, 7, (4), 455-462, 2016.
  9. D.Horlait, S.Grasso, N. Al Nasiri, P.A.Burr, W.E.Lee. “Synthesis and Oxidation Testing of MAX Phase Composites in the Cr–Ti–Al–C Quaternary System“. J.Am. Ceram. Soc., 99, (2), 682-690, 2016.
  10. W.G.Fahrenholtz, J.Binner, J.Zou. “Synthesis of Ultra-Refractory Transition Metal Diboride Compounds“. J.Mater. Res, 31, (18), 2757-2772,2016.
  11. S.A.Humphry-Baker, W.E.Lee. “Tungsten Carbide is More Oxidation Resistant than Tungsten when Processed to Full Density“. Scripta Materialia, 116, 67-70, 2016.
  12. T.Saunders, S.Grasso, M.J.Reece. “Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes“. Scientific Reports, 6, 27222, 2016.
  13. J.Zou, G-J. Zhang, Z-J. Shen, J.Binner. “Ultra-low Temperature Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering of ZrB2-hBN Ceramics“. J.Eur. Ceram. Society, 36, 3637-3645, 2016.
  14. S.Grasso, E-Y. Kim, T.Saunders, M.Yu, A. Tudball, S-H. Choi, M.Reece. “Ultra-Rapid Crystal Growth of Textured SiC Using Flash Spark Plasma Sintering Route“. Cryst. Growth. Des, 16, 2317-2321, 2016.
  15. RW Harrison, WE Lee, “Processing and Properties of ZrC, ZrN and ZrCN Ceramics: A Review”.Adv. Applied Ceramics, 115, (5), 294-307, 2016.


  1. L.Larrimbe, M. Pettina, K. Nikbin, E.L.Jones, A.P.Katz, C.J.Hawkins, J.De Cerbo, P.Brown, L.J.Vandeperre. “High Heat Flux Laser Testing of HfB2 Cylinders“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 100, (1), 293-303, 2017.
  2. W.E. Lee, N. Ni, E. Zapata-Solvas.”Experimental synthesis and DFT investigation of radiation tolerance of Zr₃(Al₁–ₓ,Siₓ)C₂ MAX phases“. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., DOI: 10.1111/jace.14742
  3.  S.A. Humphry-Baker, K. Peng, W.E Lee. “Oxidation resistant tungsten carbide hardmetals“. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 66, p: 135-143, 2017
  4. J. Zou, V. Rubio, J. Binner. “Thermoablative resistance of ZrB2-SiC-WC ceramics at 2400 °C“. Acta Materiala, 133, p: 293-302, 2017


  1. S Grasso, T Saunders, B Milsom, MJ Reece, Flash Spark Plasma Sintering of Silicon Carbide UK patent application IPO 1507740.7.