Publications & Patents



  1. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown and WE Lee, “Thermal Properties of La2O3-doped ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [15-16] 3467-3472, 2013.
  2. J Ye, RP Thackray, S Zhang and WE Lee, “Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Titanium Carbide Coated Carbon Black Particles Synthesized from Molten Salt”, J. Mater. Sci., 48 [18] 6269-75, 2013.
  3. A Paul, S Venugopal, JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, ACJ Heaton and PM Brown, “UHTC–carbon fibre composites: Preparation, Oxyacetylene Torch Testing and Characterisation”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [2] 423-432 (2013).
  4. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan and D Jaglin, “Microwave Heated Chemical Vapour Infiltration of SiC Powder Impregnated SiC Fibre Preforms”, Adv. Appl. Ceram., 112 [4] 235-241, 2013.
  5. A Paul, JGP Binner, ACJ Heaton, B Vaidhyanathan, and PM Brown, “Oxyacetylene Torch Testing and Microstructural Characterisation of Tantalum Carbide”, Journal of Microscopy, 250 [2] 122-129, 2013.
  6. B Cui, E Zapata-Solvas, MJ Reece, C Wang and WE Lee, “Microstructure and High-Temperature Oxidation Behaviour of Ti3AlC2/W Composites”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [2] 584-591, 2013.
  7. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, P Brown and WE Lee, “Mechanical Properties of ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33 1373-1386, 2013.
  8. S Grasso, J Poetschke, V Richter, G Maizza, Y Sakka and MJ Reece, “Low-Temperature Spark Plasma Sintering of Pure Nano WC Powder”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [6] 1702-1705, 2013.
  9. S Grasso, H Yoshida, H Porwal, Y Sakka and MJ Reece, “Highly Transparent α-Alumina Obtained By Low Cost High Pressure SPS”, Ceramics International, 39 [3] 3243-3248, 2013.
  10. D Manara, HF Jackson, C Perinetti-Casoni, K Boboridis, MJ Welland, L Luzzi and WE Lee, “The ZrC-C Eutectic Structure and Melting Behaviour: A High-temperature Radiance Spectroscopy Study”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 33 1349-61, 2013.
  11. WE Lee, MI Ojovan and CM Jantzen (Editors), “Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-up: Processes, Technologies and International Experience”, (Woodhead, 2013).
  12. B Cui and WE Lee, “High-temperature Oxidation Behaviour of MAX-Phase Ceramics”, Refractories World forum, WINNER of 3rd place in Gustav Eirich Award 2012, 5 [1] 105-112, 2013.
  13. WE Lee, M Gilbert, S Murphy and RW Grimes, “Opportunities for Advanced Ceramics and Composites in the Nuclear Sector”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 96 [7] 2005-30, 2013.
  14. S Grasso, Y Sakka, “Electric field in SPS: Geometry and Pulsed Current Effects”, J. Ceram. Soc., Japan, 1414 [121] 524-526, 2013.
  15. J Ye, S Zhang and WE Lee, “Molten Salt Synthesis and Characterization of SiC Coated Carbon Black Particles for Refractory Castables Applications”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 33 [29] 2023-29, 2013.
  16. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, D Jaglin and S Needham, “Use of Electrophoretic Impregnation And Vacuum Bagging to Impregnate Sic Powder into Sic Fibre Preforms”, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Techn., 1-11 DOI:10.1111/ijac.12143 (2013).


  1. S Venugopal, A Paul, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner, A Heaton, PM Brown, “Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering of Sub-micron HfB2: Effect of Various Carbon Sources”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 34 [6] 1471–1479, 2014.
  2. WE Lee, R Harrison, E Giorgi, A Maitre and O Rapaud, WG Fahrenholtz, EJ Wuchina, “Nuclear Applications for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and MAX Phases, in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Application”, Lee WE and Zhou Y (Eds.), Wiley, (2014).
  3. WG Fahrenholtz, EJ Wuchina, WE Lee and Y Zhou (Editors), “Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Applications”, Wiley, (2014).
  4. C Carney, A Paul, A Venugopal, T Parthasarathy, JGP Binner, A Katz and P Brown, “Qualitative Analysis of Hafnium Diboride Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Oxyacetylene Torch Testing at Temperatures above 2100oC”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 34 [5] 1045–1051, 2014.
  5. Q Wang, C Hu, S Cai, Y Sakka, S Grasso and Q Huang, “Synthesis of High-Purity Ti3SiC2 by Microwave Sintering”, Int. J. App. Ceram. Tech.,11 [5] 911-918, 2014.
  6. A Paul, JGP Binner and B Vaidhyanathan, “UHTC Composites for Hypersonic Applications”, Chapter 7, in Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics: Materials for Extreme Environment Applications, First Edition. Edited by William G. Fahrenholtz, Eric J. Wuchina, William E. Lee and Yanchun Zhou. The American Ceramic Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 144-166, 2014.
  7. JD Rogal, MW Finnis, A Glensk, J Neugebauer, JH Perepezko, S Schuwalow, MHF Sluiter, B Sundman, “Perspectives on Point Defect Thermodynamics”, Physica Status Solidi B, [251] 97-129, 2014.
  8. S Grasso, T Saunders, H Porwal, O Cedillos-Barraza, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee and MJ Reece, “Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) of Pure ZrB2 Powder“, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97 [8] 2405-2408, 2014.
  9. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown and WE Lee, “Effect of La2O3 Addition on Long-term Oxidation Kinetics of ZrB2-SiC and HfB2-SiC Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 34 [5] 3535-3548, 2014.
  10. P Badica, S Grasso, H Borodianska Sky, S Xie, P Li, P Tatarko, MJ Reece, Y Sakka and O Vasylkiv, “Tough and Dense Boron Carbide Obtained By High-Pressure (300 MPa) and Low-Temperature (1600°C) Spark Plasma Sintering”, J. Ceram.Soc., of Japan, 122 271-275, 2014.
  11. S Venugopal, EE Boakye, A Paul, K Keller, P Mogilevsky, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner, A Katz and PM Brown, “Sol Gel Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Ultra High Temperature Ceramic: HfB2”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 97 [1] 92–99, 2014.
  12. MI Ojovan and WE Lee, (2nd Edition, Elsevier) “An Introduction to Nuclear Waste Immobilisation“, 362 (2014).
  13. H Zhang, C Hu, J Lv, S Grasso, M Mishra, M Estili, Y Yamauchi, B Kim, Y Sakka, “Microstructure and Adsorption Property of Nano Carbide-derived Carbon (CDC) Synthesized at Ambient Temperature”, Materials Letters, 130 188-191, 2014.
  14. S Grasso, T Saunders, H Porwal and MJ Reece, “Ultra-High Temperature Spark Plasma Sintering of α-SiC”, Ceramics International, 41 [1] 225-230, 2014.
  15. R Harrison, O Ridd, DD Jayaseelan and WE Lee, “Thermophysical Characterisation Of ZrCxNy Ceramics Fabricated Via Carbothermal Reduction-Nitridation”, J. Nuclear Mats.,454,46-53 , 2014.
  16. J Gonzalez-Julian, O Cedillos, S Doring, S Nolte, O Guillon and WE Lee, “Enhanced Oxidation Resistance of ZrB2/SiC Composites Through In Situ Reaction of Gadolinium Oxide in Patterned Surface Cavities”, J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 34,4157-4166, 2014.
  17. R Harrison, O Ridd, DD Jayaseelan and WE Lee, “Synthesis and Characterisation of ZrCxNy Ceramics via Carbothermic Reduction-Nitridation”, J. Nuclear Mats.


  1. T Saunders, S Grasso,  MJ Reece, “Plasma Formation during Electric Discharge (50V) through Conductive Powder Compacts”, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [3] 871–877, , 2015.
  2. DD Jayaseelan, E Zapata-Solvas, CM Carney, A Katz, P Brown, WE Lee, “Microstructural Evolution of HfB2–based Ceramics during Oxidation at 1600oC to 2000oC”, Adv. in Applied Ceramics. 114 [5] 277-295, 2015.
  3. JGP Binner, B Vaidhyanathan, D Jaglin, S Needham, “Use of Electrophoretic Impregnation And Vacuum Bagging To Impregnate Sic Powder Into Sic Fibre Preforms”, S. Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Tech., 12 [1] 212–222, 2015.
  4. S Venugopal, DD Jayaseelan, A Paul, B Vaidhyanathan, JGP Binner,PM Brown,”Screw Dislocation Assisted Spontaneous Growth of HfB2 Tubes and Rods”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98 [7] 2060-2064, 2015.
  5. DD Jayaseelan, X Yanda, L Vandeperre, P Brown, WE Lee, “Development of Multi-Layered Thermal Protection System (TPS) For Aerospace Applications”, Composite, Part B, [79] 392-405, 2015.
  6. N Patra, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee, “Synthesis of Biopolymer-Derived Zirconium Carbide Powder By Facile One-Pot Reaction”, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98 [1] 71-77, 2015.
  7. HB Zhang, CF Hu, SK Sato, S Grasso, M Estili, SQ Guo, K Morita, H Yoshida, T Nishimura, TS Suzuki, MW Barsoum, BN Kim, Y Sakka, “Tailoring Ti3AlC2 Ceramic With High Anisotropic Physical And Mechanical Properties”, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [1] 393-397, 2015.
  8. CF Hu, BN Kim, YJ Park, M Estili, S Grasso, K Morita, H Yoshida, T Nishimura, SQ Guo, Y Sakka, “Nano ZrO2-Tin Composites With High Strength And Conductivity”, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 123 [1434] 86-89, 2015.
  9. MK Mani, G Viola, JP Hall, S Grasso, MJ Reece, “Observation of Curie Transition During Spark Plasma Sintering of Ferromagnetic Materials”, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 382 202-205, 2015.
  10. AI Duff, T. Davey, D Korbmacher, A Glensk, B Grabowski, J Neugebauer, MW Finnis, “Improved Method Of Calculating ab initio High-Temperature Thermodynamic Properties With Application to ZrC”, Phys. Rev. B, [91] 214311-1-8, 2015.
  11. A. Duff,  M. Finnis, P.Maugis, B. Thijsse, M. H. F Sluiter, “MEAMfit: A Reference-Free Modified Embedded Atom Method (RF-MEAM) Energy and Force-Fitting Code.” Phys. Commun., 196, 439-445, 2015.
  12. DD Jayaseelan, E Zapata-Solvas, R Chater, WE Lee, “Structural and Compositional Analyses of Oxidized Layers of ZrB2-based ceramics”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35 [15] 4059–4071, 2015.
  13. D Horlait, S Grasso, N Al Nasiri, PA Burr, WE Lee, “Synthesis and Oxidation Testing of MAX Phases in the Cr-Ti-Al-C Quaternary System”,  J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 99 (2), 682-690, 2015.
  14. R Harrison, WE Lee, “Mechanism and Kinetics of Oxidation of ZrN Ceramics”,  J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 98, (7), 2205-2213, 2015.
  15. T Saunders, S Grasso, MJ Reece, “Limiting oxidation of ZrB2 by application of an electric field across its oxide scale”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 653, 629-635, 2015.
  16. Stadelmann, B. Hughes, N. Orlovskaya, S. Grasso, M. J. Reece, “2D Raman Mapping and Thermal Tesidual Stresses in SiC Grains of ZrB2–SiC Ceramic Composites”, Ceramics International, 41, 13630-13637, 2015.
  17. T. Saunders, S. Grasso, M.J.Reece. “Plasma Formation during Electric Discharge (50V) through Conductive Powder Compacts“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 35, 817-877, (2015).
  18. E Zapata-Solvas, DD Jayaseelan, PM Brown, WE Lee, “Effect of Oxidation on Room Temperature Strength of ZrB2– and HfB2-based Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics”, Adv. in Applied Ceramics, 114, (8), 407- 417, 2015.
  19.  L. Melk, J.J.R. Rovira, F. Garcia-Marro, M-L. Antti, B. Milsom, M.J. Reece, M. Anglada. “Nanoindentation and fracture toughness of nanostructured zirconia/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites“.  Ceramics International, 41 (2, Part A), p:2453-2461, 2015


  1. D.Horlait, S.Grasso, A.Chroneos, W.E. Lee. “Attempts to Synthesize Quaternary MAX Phases (Zr,M)2AlC and Zr2(Al,A)C as a Way to Approach Zr2AlC“.  Mat. Res. Letters, 4, (3), 137-144, 2016.
  2. T Csanádi, S Grasso, A Kovalčíková, J Dusza, M Reece, “Nanohardness and Elastic Anisotropy of ZrB2 Crystals“, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 36, 239-242, 2016.
  3. T Csanádi,*, P Szommer, NQ Chinh, S Grasso, J Dusza, Mike Reece, “Plasticity in ZrB2 Micropillars Induced by Anomalous Slip Activation“, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc. , 36, 389-394, 2016.
  4. S Grasso, T Saunders, B Milsom, H Porwal, MJ Reece, “Flash Spark Plasma sintering of α and β Silicon Carbide”, J.Am. Ceram. Soc.,99 (5), 1534-1543, 2016.
  5. D Horlait, SC Middleburgh, A Chroneos, WE Lee, “Synthesis and DFT Investigation of New Bismuth-Containing MAX Phases”, Scientific Reports, 6:18829, 2016.
  6. N Patra, DD Jayaseelan, WE Lee, “Synthesis of ZrB2/SiC Composite Powders by a Single-Step Solution Process from an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Precursor”, Adv. Applied Ceramics, 115, (1), 36-42,2016.
  7. O.Cedillos-Barraza, S.Grasso, N. Al Nasiri, D.D. Jayaseelan, M.J.Reece, W.E.Lee. “Sintering Behaviour, Solid Solution Formation and Characterisation of TaC, HfC and TaC–HfC Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 36,1539-1548, 2016.
  8. S. Ghanizadeh, P.Ramanujam, B.Vaidhayanathan, J.Binner. “Spray Freeze Granulation of Submicrometre α-alumina Using Ultrasonication“. J.Ceram.Sci.Tech, 7, (4), 455-462, 2016.
  9. D.Horlait, S.Grasso, N. Al Nasiri, P.A.Burr, W.E.Lee. “Synthesis and Oxidation Testing of MAX Phase Composites in the Cr–Ti–Al–C Quaternary System“. J.Am. Ceram. Soc., 99, (2), 682-690, 2016.
  10. W.G.Fahrenholtz, J.Binner, J.Zou. “Synthesis of Ultra-Refractory Transition Metal Diboride Compounds“. J.Mater. Res, 31, (18), 2757-2772,2016.
  11. S.A.Humphry-Baker, W.E.Lee. “Tungsten Carbide is More Oxidation Resistant than Tungsten when Processed to Full Density“. Scripta Materialia, 116, 67-70, 2016.
  12. T.Saunders, S.Grasso, M.J.Reece. “Ultrafast-Contactless Flash Sintering using Plasma Electrodes“. Scientific Reports, 6, 27222, 2016.
  13. J.Zou, G-J. Zhang, Z-J. Shen, J.Binner. “Ultra-low Temperature Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering of ZrB2-hBN Ceramics“. J.Eur. Ceram. Society, 36, 3637-3645, 2016.
  14. S.Grasso, E-Y. Kim, T.Saunders, M.Yu, A. Tudball, S-H. Choi, M.Reece. “Ultra-Rapid Crystal Growth of Textured SiC Using Flash Spark Plasma Sintering Route“. Cryst. Growth. Des, 16, 2317-2321, 2016.
  15. RW Harrison, WE Lee, “Processing and Properties of ZrC, ZrN and ZrCN Ceramics: A Review”.Adv. Applied Ceramics, 115, (5), 294-307, 2016.
  16. R. Stadelmann, M. Lugovy, N. Orlovskaya, P. Mchaffey, M. Radovic, V. M. Sglavo, S. Grasso, M. J. Reece. “Mechanical properties and residual stresses in ZrB2–SiC spark plasma sintered ceramic composites”. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 36 (7), p: 1527-1537, 2016.
  17. P. Ramanujam, B. Vaidhyanathan, J.G.P. Binner, S. Ghanizadeh, C. Spacie. “Solvothermal nanoYAG synthesis: Mechanism and particle growth kinetics“. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 107, p: 433-440, 2016.


  1. L.Larrimbe, M. Pettina, K. Nikbin, E.L.Jones, A.P.Katz, C.J.Hawkins, J.De Cerbo, P.Brown, L.J.Vandeperre. “High Heat Flux Laser Testing of HfB2 Cylinders“. J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 100, (1), 293-303, 2017.
  2. W.E. Lee, N. Ni, E. Zapata-Solvas.”Experimental synthesis and DFT investigation of radiation tolerance of Zr₃(Al₁–ₓ,Siₓ)C₂ MAX phases“. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., DOI: 10.1111/jace.14742
  3.  S.A. Humphry-Baker, K. Peng, W.E Lee. “Oxidation resistant tungsten carbide hardmetals“. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, 66, p: 135-143, 2017
  4. J. Zou, V. Rubio, J. Binner. “Thermoablative resistance of ZrB2-SiC-WC ceramics at 2400 °C“. Acta Materiala, 133, p: 293-302, 2017
  5. Densification behaviour and physico-mechanical properties of porcelains prepared using spark plasma sintering. W. Lerdprom, S. Grasso, D.D. Jayaseelan, M. J. Reece, W. E. Lee. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 116 (6), p:307-315,2017
  6.  M. Yu, S. Grasso, R. Mckinnon, T. Saunders, M. J. Reece. “Review of flash sintering: materials, mechanisms and modelling”. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 116 (1), p:24-60, 2017
  7. E. Castle, R. Sheridan, W. Zhou, S. Grasso, A. Walton, M. J. Reece. “High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering“. Scientific Reports, 7, 11134, 2017
  8.  L.Xu, D. Zhu, S. Grasso, T. S. Suzuki, A. Kasahara, M. Tosa, B. Kim, Y. Sakka, M. Zhu, C. Hu. “Effect of texture microstructure on tribological properties of tailored Ti3AlC2 ceramic“. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 6 (2), p:120-128, 2017


  1. S Grasso, T Saunders, B Milsom, MJ Reece, Flash Spark Plasma Sintering of Silicon Carbide UK patent application IPO 1507740.7.